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LORETA (low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography)
The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich, Switzerland
LORETA is a technique for functional imaging of the human brain. It computes the three dimensional distribution of electric neuronal activity (throughout cortical grey matter) from non-invasive measurements of scalp electric potential differences (EEG: electroencephalogram), with high time resolution in the millisecond range. The current software implementation is limited to EEG, although LORETA is defined for EEG and MEG (magnetoencephalogram). The more recent method, sLORETA (standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography), yields images of standardized current density with zero localization error. This practically makes the older, original LORETA method obsolete.
NIfTI-1 support
Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui
pascualm at
Free Academic Ethical BrainWare
How to get
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Current version
Current version release date
Open source
Available free of charge
Minimum: Windows 98 or higher, 1 GB free disk space, 512 MB RAM, 1024x768x(16BitsColor), "Microsoft Internet Explorer" Version 4 or higher, graphics card and driver supporting OpenGL.
Technical publications

- Pascual-Marqui RD, Michel CM, Lehmann D. Low resolution electromagnetic tomography: a new method for localizing electrical activity in the brain. International Journal of Psychophysiology. 1994, 18:49-65.
- Pascual-Marqui RD. Review of methods for solving the EEG inverse problem. International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism 1999, 1: 75-86.
- Pascual-Marqui RD. Standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA): technical details. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology 2002, 24D:5-12.
{Papers available at}
Applications publications

The following papers are reviews of LORETA applications:
- R.D. Pascual-Marqui, M. Esslen, K. Kochi, D. Lehmann. Functional imaging with low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA): a review. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology 2002, 24C:91-95.
- Pascual-Marqui RD, Esslen M, Kochi K, Lehmann D: Functional imaging with low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA): review, new comparisons, and new validation. Japanese Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 30:81-94, 2002.
{Papers available at}
Other information
functional, statistical, visualization
IATR listing last updated
15 Jun 2007